What will the manufacturing of tomorrow look like? Innovations in machine vision, deep learning, and robotics are revolutionizing production lines and supply chains. As machines and the information they produce become linked, new cyber-physical systems will spark a modern day Industrial Revolution. In Industry 4.0, smart machines learn from their environments and take corrective actions to optimize production. These machines work independently of a central controller, collaborating and communicating with other devices. Industry 4.0 factories produce new organizational intelligence, which spreads across facilities and is accessible anywhere. Machine vision will be at the heart of this new manufacturing paradigm.